IRON AND MANGANESE REMOVAL
Iron and manganese are common in groundwater supplies used by many small water systems. Exceeding the suggested maximum contaminant levels (MCL) usually results in discolored water, laundry, and plumbing fixtures. This, in turn, results in consumer complaints and a general dissatisfaction with the water utility.
How iron and manganese are removed depends on the type and concentration, and this helps determine the best procedure and treatment system to use. Iron and manganese can be present in water in one of three basic forms: dissolved, particulate and colloidal. The predominance of one form over another is dependent on the water’s pH. The two most common treatment methods are removal by oxidation/filtration and adsorbing onto ion exchange resins.